Question: Why Do We Prefer Silicon Over Germanium?

Why silicon and germanium are the two widely used semiconductor materials?

Silicon and germanium are used here effectively because they have 4 valence electrons in their outermost shell which gives them the ability to gain or lose electrons equally at the same time..

Why is Germanium important?

Many other substances now also are used as semiconductors, but germanium remains of primary importance in the manufacture of transistors and of components for devices such as rectifiers and photocells. Germanium. Properties of germanium.

What is an advantage of a germanium diode over silicon?

However, the germanium diode has one major advantage over Si. Ge has higher electron and hole mobility and because of this Ge devices can function up to a higher frequency than Si devices. The germanium diode is also superior to silicon diode in terms of energy loss, current loss, etc.

Why leakage current is more for germanium diode?

Much of the leakage current is due to surface conduction, related to the lack of cleanliness of the semiconductor surface. Both leakage currents increase with increasing temperature, approaching a µA for small silicon diodes. For germanium, the leakage current is orders of magnitude higher.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of semiconductor over other devices?

Unlike vacuum tubes, semiconductors are shock-proof. Moreover, they are smaller in size and occupy less space and consume less power. Compared to vacuum tubes, semiconductors are extremely sensitive to temperature and radiation. Semiconductors are cheaper than vacuum diodes and have an unlimited shelf life.

What is a semiconductor material?

Semiconductors are materials which have a conductivity between conductors (generally metals) and nonconductors or insulators (such as most ceramics). Semiconductors can be pure elements, such as silicon or germanium, or compounds such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide.

Why is silicon the most commonly used semiconductor?

Silicon is used for electronic devices because it is an element with very special properties. One of it’s most important properties is that it is a semiconductor. This means that it conducts electricity under some conditions and acts as an insulator under others. … Silicon is also an abundant element on Earth.

Why germanium is not used in SCR?

Ability to withstand at high temperature: silicon crystals have capability to withstand at higher temperature compare to germanium crystals . So if leakage current is produced in SCR it heats up the device then silicon crystals can withstand but not germanium crystals.

What is the difference between germanium diode and silicon diode?

A Silicon Diode is a semiconductor that has both positive and negative charge polarity and can allow an electrical current to flow in one direction whilst restricting another. A Germanium Diode works in the same way but has a low forward voltage which results in it being a low power loss and an efficient diode.

Why is carbon Not a semiconductor?

Carbon is not used as semiconductor it has 4 valence electrons in it valence shell but the energy gap is very small it will conduct electricity even at room temperature ,the size of carbon is very small .

Why is silicon so important?

Plants use silicon to strengthen their cell walls. The element appears to be an important nutrient that helps confer resistance to disease, according to a 1994 paper in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Silicon Valley gets its name from the silicon used in computer chips.

What is silicon most commonly used for?

Silicon is one of the most useful elements to mankind. Most is used to make alloys including aluminium-silicon and ferro-silicon (iron-silicon). These are used to make dynamo and transformer plates, engine blocks, cylinder heads and machine tools and to deoxidise steel. Silicon is also used to make silicones.

Which is better silicon or germanium?

The structure of Germanium crystals will be destroyed at higher temperature. However, Silicon crystals are not easily damaged by excess heat. Peak Inverse Voltage ratings of Silicon diodes are greater than Germanium diodes. Si is less expensive due to the greater abundance of element.

What is the difference between silicon and germanium?

Each has four valence electrons, but germanium will at a given temperature have more free electrons and a higher conductivity. … Silicon is by far the more widely used semiconductor for electronics, partly because it can be used at much higher temperatures than germanium.

Why does leakage current increase with temperature?

At room temperatures of 25°C or 78°F, there is negligible amount of minority carriers present in a reverse bias diode. When the surrounding temperature rises, it causes significant increase in minority carrier creation and as a result it causes a corresponding increase in leakage current.